Wednesday, July 18, 2007

Loosen up! If you lose, try again.

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,

Here are some words for today:

Loosen - Verb
1. To release from restraint
2. To cause or permit or become less strict

Loose - Adjective
1. Not rigidly fastened or securely attached

Lose - Verb
1. Not winning
Present: lose
Past: lost
Perfect: lost

Loosen up - Phrasal verb
1. To become less tense, to relax.

I am writing this entry to loosen up myself before an exam.

Allah knows best.

Wednesday, July 11, 2007

Verbs as adjectives. Case study: Included

In the name of Allah the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,

Case study: included

Included is the past participle of the verb include.

Taken from

include verb - to contain as a secondary or subordinate element

In some cases, included is used as an adjective, describing an object which has been subjected to the verb include.


1. Included as an adjective:

The taxi fee is included in the ticket.

2. Included as a verb:

Two new ministers have been included into the new cabinet.

Further case study.

What is the difference between is included and was included?

In this case, the difference is the tense of the verb to be in the sentences. The first one is in present tense while the latter in the past tense.

Is included is used when you are describing something which is, as of the moment, included.

Example: The taxi fee is included in the ticket. Meaning: The ticket covers the taxi fee as well.

Was included is used when you are describing something which at first, you included it but at a later date you decided to exclude it.


Customer: I would like to buy a ticket to Rosenheim please.
Accountant: Eh? Excuse me? I'm sorry sir, this is finance, please hold on while I connect you to sales.
Customer: Oh, I'm terribly sorry. The girl before connected me here. I had no idea. Sorry to take up your time.
Accountant: No problem sir. This happens all the time. It seems that people nowadays are terribly useless at what they are supposed to do.
Customer: Tell me about it. The other day I had to fire 5 people because they didnt seem to like working. Yes, they wanted money but no, they did not want to work. How was that ever going to work?
Accountant: I'm terribly sorry to hear that.
Customer: Eh, thats finance right?
Accountant: Yes, sir.
Customer: I was wondering, whether the taxi fee is still included in the ticket?
Accountant: (What does that got to do with finance?) Oh sir, I'm sorry to tell you it is no more included. It was included last year but it has been excluded since January this year. I'm sorry to inform you that.
Customer: Oh, thats too bad. But hey, thanks for the info.
Accountant: Welcome.

From this lengthy example, we can learn that:

1. Good help is hard to get nowadays.
2. Was included is used for something which happened in the past.

Allah knows best.
Disclaimer: I am neither an English native speaker nor a qualified English teacher.